The biggest reasons to increase the size / type of power supply is for higher level video cards, a high CPU core count, a large number of drives, or commercial or business use. Higher end power supplies are rated for more maximum amps and will be more durable, and can handle more cards, drives and video cards.
Connectors - More expensive power supplies will have more internal connectors. The main connector types are 15 pin SATA connectors (for drives), 4 pin molex connectors (for fans), PCIe 6 pin or 8 pin connectors for video cards, and the required connectors for the motherboard power (24 Pin + 4 / 8 pin). AMD Threadripper motherboards have connections for two 8 Pin CPU power connectors, so we offer "Dual ATX & EPS" type power supplies for AMD Threadripper systems.
Active PFC - In addition to either 6pin or 8 pin plugs, high end ATI Radeon R9 / RX and Nvidia Geforce GTX / RTX cards need a feature called Active PFC (Power Fault Control / Power Factor Correction). Active PFC maintains an additional buffer of power to prevent a system reboot when these cards increase current usage for brief period.
Dual ATX & EPS - Workstation class motherboards (AMD Threadripper & Intel X299 / Socket 2066 - only) have additional power plugs on the motherboard and can benefit from a Dual ATX & EPS power supply. These workstation class systems can also run with a good high quality standard power supply, but for the highest level of stability these systems have inputs for two supplemental 12V channels, both of which typically also have Active PFC, making these units the most stable possible even with very high core count CPUs and high CPU utilization.
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